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In the last 20 years, the integration of marketing functions has moved from theory to practice. Its specific applications may vary from market to market—indeed, from enterprise to enterprise—but integrated marketing communications (IMC) programs have become standard for marketing organizations, agencies, and the academic community. A review of the best IMC advertising and public relations practices in the United States, Korea, and Great Britain, however, reveals not just cultural divergence in adoption and practice, but also underlying weaknesses regarding IMC as a process and practice. The findings support the need to focus future IMC research within client organizations.
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